Industry terminology

Electric vehicle charging is best done while the car is parked in a parking facility, as opposed to just stopped at a charging station. 
US Europe Abbreviation Industry
AC EV Charging
Definition: Altermating current.
Access Control Parking
Definition: Managing the access in and out of parking facility; parker must present a valid parking credential.
Access Control System  ACS Parking
Definition: A system of hardware and software that controls access to facilities with gates.
Access and Revenue Control (also known as Parking Access and Revenue Control) ARC (PARC) Parking
Definition: Available in varying levels of functionality and complexity, access and revenue control systems allow parking owners and operators to control access and collect parking revenues from users. Available in varying types of equipment platforms, ARC systems, when combined with policy and procedure, can speed entry and exit from a facility and secure revenues through audit records.
Alarms Parking
Definition: Used in access control and revenue control systems, these are system generated messages that indicate potential problems with equipment or operational rules that have been broken (i.e., vehicle entered lane and then backed out).
Appeal  Parking
Definition: The disputing of a citation. Also called adjudication or hearing. Can be regulated by statute in a municipal environment. Often associated with an appeals panel in a university setting.
Definition: Any item of economic value owned by an individual or corporation, especially that which could be converted to cash. Examples are cash, securities, accounts receivable, inventory, office equipment, real estate, a car, and other property. 
Audit Parking
Definition: The process of reconciling financial transactions with operating transactions for a day or other defined period. This is particularly sensitive in a revenue control operation, where a certain amount of theft is possible. Proper audit operations include ticket, spot, and shopper audits to ensure revenue security.
Authoritative Data Source Parking
Definition: The system that has ownership of data or process. Many systems can access the data, but only an authoritative system maintains the original record and controls changes to the data. Example: The department of motor vehicles is the authoritative source of driver license numbers. A parking operation might use this number but is not allowed to change/alter it because the parking office is not the authoritative source if that piece of data.
Automated Pay Station APS Parking
Definition: Allows for automated ticket processing in central cashiering facilities. It can supplement and/or replace cashiers. Sometimes called a pay-on-foot or pay-in-lane machine. Can accept multiple forms of payment and provide receipts. Also known as payment terminal.
Automatic Vehicle Identification AVI Parking
Definition: A system that enables automatic identification of a vehicle when it enters a parking facility so it can be authorized and permitted to enter and exit. AVI access methods include RFID, LPR, and Proximity cards. Also known as Number Plate Recognition.
Barcode Parking
Definition: An optical, machine-readable representation of data that can be printed on a credential. There are many barcode formats, including Code 39 (3 of 9), Code 128, PDF417, QR, etc.
Batch Parking
Definition: An interface that collects data for periodic updates versus providing a real-time stream of data.
Bulk Permits Parking
Definition: A stack of permits purchased all at once. For example, a department or office may purchase bulk permits for a special event to pass out to its guests.
CCS EV Charging
Definition: European and US quick charging protocol standard. Abbreviation of Combined Charging System using DC.
CHAdeMO EV Charging
Definition: Japanese quick charging protocol/standard using DC.
Car Park Management Systems CPMS Parking
Definition: Represents multiple parking technologies beyond revenue and access control, which typically apply to off-street parking facilities. Other systems represented by CPMS include meter revenue systems, parking guidance systems, systems that track occupancy, and other systems that do not necessarily include access and revenue control.
Card-In-Card-Out Parking
Definition: An operating model that allows a customer to use a credit card as an access credential to enter and exit a parking facility. The credit card acts both as credential and payment mechanism. The advantage of credit card use for entry and exit is that the customer is not required to have a ticket. There are also significant revenue security advantages.
Cardholder Information Security Program CISP Parking
Definition: A program from VISA related to handling sensitive credit card data. For the most part, this has been replaces by PCI-DSS.
Charging point Charger EV Charging
Definition: An electrical device that chargers the car battery.
Charging point Charger EV Charging
Definition: An electrical device that chargers the car battery.
Cloud service
Definition: Cloud services means services made available to users on demand via the Internet from a cloud computing provider's servers as opposed to being provided from a company's own on-premises servers. Cloud services are designed to provide easy, scalable access to applications, resources and services, and are fully managed by a cloud services provider.
Comprehensive Asset Management Plan CAMP Parking
Definition: Provides a long-term asset management approach to plan for and minimize the cost of buying, operating, maintaining, replacing, and disposing of parking-related capital assets.
Connector EV Charging
Definition: Charger component that connects the charger cable with the car.
Counting System  Parking
Definition: A system used to track the number of parkers using sensors (loops, infrared cameras etc.) that vehicles pass through or over. Also referred to as an occupancy system.
Credential Parking
Definition: Also referred to as a permit, it allows access to a facility or to park in a certain on-street area (i.e. residential parking pass) and references access control systems.
Credit Card Gateway Parking
Definition: The infrastructure that allows a merchant to accept credit cards, connect with a processor or bank, and process credit card payments. Specifically the gateway is a service that connects the location’s credit card device/server to the credit card processor’s system.
Credit Card Processing Parking
Definition: The ability to take, validate, and authorize credit cards for payment.
DC EV Charging
Definition: Direct current.
Dashboard Parking
Definition: Refers to a web-based page on which real-time information is collated from various sources. The metaphor of a dashboard is adopted here to emphasize the nature of the data being displayed on the page; it is a real-time analysis as to how a business is operating.
Data aggregation
Definition: Data aggregation is the compiling of information from databases with intent to prepare combined datasets for data processing.
Declining Balance Card/Stored Value Card/Campus Card Parking
Definition: A card or account that stores a set amount of value available to a parker. The parker (cardholder) cannot spend more than that pre-loaded amount, but usually has the ability to add value to the card. May also be called an eWallet. These systems are typically found in PARCS.
Demand-Based Pricing Parking
Definition: Pricing of parking supply based on demand. Generally speaking, the price of parking should be set so there is always an available space on any given block face.
Dynamic pricing
Definition: Dynamic pricing, also referred to as surge pricing or demand pricing, is a pricing strategy in which businesses set flexible prices for products or services based on current market demands.
Energy  EV Charging
Definition: Amount of usable force stored in battery (measured kWHs).
Entry Lane Station Parking
Definition: An in-lane cashier station or booth in the entry lane to a facility that may be used to collect payment for parking; dispense token, ticket or other item indicating time of entry or validity of vehicle; or detect permits or other permission to enter.
Exit Verifier Parking
Definition: Also called an exit station, hardware in a lane where the customer inserts a dispensed ticket showing that they paid. The hardware verifies payment and raises the gate.
Extend-by-phone Parking
Definition: Used in conjunction with pay-by-phone and meters to allow parkers to add time to their parking sessions via phone. Typically, the meter will send a text message alerting the parker that his time is about to expire. Parkers can add time by texting back.
Facility Management System  FMS Parking
Definition: The computer system and software that provides real-time reporting, monitoring, and controlling of the Parcs. In essence, this represents the brains of the system.
Facility  Parking
Definition: Also called a garage, deck, or ramp. In some software, a surface lot can also be defined as a facility.
Gate Parking
Definition: The hardware used to control access to a facility or surface lot.
Handheld Ticketwriter Parking
Definition: A computer that is small enough to be held in one’s hand; used to write electronic parking citations.
In-Car Meter Parking
Definition: A piece of equipment used as a hangtag inside the vehicle. Money I linked to the meter and the customer uses those funds when activate the meter to park.
Interactive map
Definition: Interactive, computerised maps allow users to zoom in or zoom out, sometimes by replacing one map with another of different scale, centered where possible on the same point.
Interface Parking
Definition: The part of a system that allows another system to connect to it. Specifically, the interface defines how data is formatted and what the rules are for accepting data. Programs that pass information from one system to another are often referred to as interfaces.
Interoperability  Parking
Definition: The term for systems that share data and processes.
Keypad Parking
Definition: An integral set of buttons arranged in a block or pad. Keypads are used as access methods or input devices on parking equipment. Most keypads are alphanumeric and contain the entire alphabet and the numbers zero to nine or are styled after telephone keypads so that pressing a number key repeatedly changes the display to a corresponding letter. Keypads themselves can be mechanical, membrane (either at or domed), or touchscreen.
License Plate Inventory LPI Parking
Definition: A process that uses license plate recognition or the manual collection of license plate information via handheld devices to count and keep track of vehicle license plates. It can be used in both controlled access and open facility environments to keep track of vehicles accessing a facility.
License Plate Recognition LPR Parking
Definition: This is a vehicle identification technology that uses cameras to take pictures of license plates, read the images via character recognition software, and convert the images into text that a computer can use. LPR is common in access control, tolling, and stolen vehicle detection applications. Sometimes called ANPR (automatic number plate recognition).
Loops Parking
Definition: Sensors that are placed in the ground of a lane or level of a facility to detect a vehicle passing overhead. They track occupancy and enable ticket dispensers or permit readers by identifying the presence of a metal object passing over the loop. Two-loop (or three-loop) systems can provide directional logic for vehicles entering or exiting a facility. Two-loop means that two loops are laid in the ground next to each other.
Lot Utilization Parking
Definition: The process of recording the full and empty spaces in a lot or facility for analysis.
Mobility as a Service MAAS
Definition: Describes a shift away from personally owned modes of transportation and towards mobility solutions that are consumed as a service. This is enabled by combining transportation services from public and private transportation providers through a unified gateway that creates and manages the trip, which users can pay for with a single account.
Definition: Payment and billing platform for parking, EV charging, bike parking, and other mobility services. 
Modular design
Definition: design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids, that can be independently created and then used in different systems. A modular system can be characterized by functional partitioning into discrete scalable, reusable modules, rigorous use of well-defined modular interfaces, and making use of industry standards for interfaces.
Monitoring System  Parking
Definition: A system that allows the user to view system-generated activity, alarms, and occupancy within a facility via the PARCS.
Multispace Meter Parking
Definition: Freestanding hardware associated with multiple parking spaces, used in on-street and surface operations to manage payment for multiple parking spaces.
Near Field Communication NFC Parking
Definition: A set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication between them by touching them together or bringing them unto close proximity.
Nest  Parking
Definition: A facility contained within another facility (called a “parent”). Nesting is often used to control access to a specific area within a larger parking facility via the use of gates.
Non-Transient Parking
Definition: Someone who uses a permit or credential to park on an ongoing basis (e.g., monthly parker). This can be in an access controlled facility or in a surface lot with no gate.
OCPP EV Charging
Definition: Abbr of Open Charge Point Protocop, most common protocop/language to connect charger with the central systems.
Occupancy Parking
Definition: The percentage of spaces in a facility that are occupied. Rules can be set to limit the number of parked vehicles based on a schedule. Example: If a facility has a capacity of 100 spaces and 90 of them are occupied, the occupancy is 90 percent.
Off-street Parking Parking
Definition: Refers to all parking not on/along the curbs of streets; includes private and public lots, garages, driveways, etc.
On-steet Parking Parking
Definition: Refers to all parking on/along the curb of streets.
Outlet EV Charging
Definition: Charger component there driver can connect the detachable cable.
PARCS Parking
Definition: Acronym for Parking Access and Revenue Control System 
Parking Guidance System/Wayfinding Parking
Definition: A system, typically internal to a parking facility, that provides guidance to open parking spaces. These systems can include dynamic signage and individual or/and space availability indicators. Newer generation parking guidance systems detect individual space occupancy with stall sensors and can also share information with GPS-enabled vehicles and smartphone apps, which extend them beyond a garage or surface lot.
Parking Session
Definition: Parking session - is one parking transaction from start to end.
Pay-and-display Parking
Definition: A type of parking operation that requires the customer to pay at a pay station in advance and place their receipt on their vehicle. The customer selects the amount of time and makes a payment. A receipt/permit prints and is displayed in the vehicle, usually on the dashboard. Enforcement officers audit by looking in vehicles for receipts.
Pay-by-cell Phone Parking
Definition: A type of parking operation that enables a customer to pay using a cell phone or mobile application. The pay-by-cell phone provider charges the customer for for parking fees and reimburses the parking operator. Enforcement officers audit by checking online databases for valid plates.
Pay-by-plate Parking
Definition: A type of parking operation that requires the customer to pay at a pay station in advance. The customer enters his license plate number at the station and makes payment. Enforcement officers audit by checking the pay station or going online to view a list of license plates marked as paid.
Pay-by-space Parking
Definition: A type of parking operation that requires the customer to pay at the pay station in advance. The customer selects his parking space location (usually numbered) at the station and makes payment. Enforcement officers audit by checking the pay station for a list of paid-for spaces.
Pay-on-entry Parking
Definition: Any type of system configuration where the customer pays for parking as he enters the facility. It is often used for event parking. Pay-on-entry system can also be used to have customers pay a deposit and receive some portion of that money back on exit if there is more than one rate in effect at a given time.
Pay-on-exit Parking
Definition: Any type of system configuration where the customer pays in-lane while leaving the facility. Payment may be made to a cashier or use credit card payment in the exit lane (exit verifier).
Pay-on-foot Parking
Definition: A type of parking operation that requires the customer to pay for parking at a pay station before exiting the facility. Customers insert their tickets into a machine and make payment, and the machine returns their ticket. Customers return to their vehicles and drive to the exit lane, where they insert their tickets into the exit station.
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards PCI-DSS Parking
Definition: A set of guidelines for handling the transmission, storage, and processing of sensitive credit and debit card data.
Payment Card Industry Payment Application Data Security Standards PCI-PA-DSS Parking
Definition: A validation program for manufacturers of payment processing equipment or software that validates their systems comply with data security standards for transmitting, storing, and processing credit and debit card data.
Permit Parking
Definition: Anything that allows a driver to park in a designated area; also referred to as permission or credential. Can be a decal, hangtag, RFID, virtual (database record), etc.
Permitless Parking Parking
Definition: A parking system that relies on license plate recognition to read pre-registered license plates that serve as parking permits or access credentials.
Point of Sale POS Parking
Definition: The equipment used to process and record transactions and collect payment. Typically associated with credit card payments (slide, tap, etc.).
Power EV Charging
Definition: The speed at which electric current flows (measured in kWs).
Proximity card Parking
Definition: A smart card that can be read without being inserted into a reader device.
Quick Response Code QR Parking
Definition: A type of two-dimensional barcode, this has become popular due to its fast readability and large storage capacity as compared to standard barcodes. The code consists of black modules (square dots) arranged in a square pattern on a white background. Web links can be embedded in a QR code, which can be printed on a document or displayed on the screen of a smartphone.
Quick charger EV Charging
Definition: Charger those output power exceeds 50kW.
Radio-frequency Identification RFID Parking
Definition: An automatic identification method that relies on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. RFID is used mainly in access and revenue control facilities and is another form of permit.
Revenue Control Parking
Definition: Involves transient and non-transient parker management and includes payment at the time of parking. Typically it refers to the servers, terminals, and kiosks used for payment and gate control in a garage.
Revenue Control System  RCS Parking
Definition: A system for managing and auditing the payments of transient and non-transient parkers in parking lot or facility. Also known as PARCS.
Short-term Parking Parking
Definition: Parking spaces that are restricted to limited duration/time (usually less than a day and often less than four hours). Restricted or regulated parking and parking meters are common examples of short-term parking. Short-term parking is typically used near businesses to provide parking for customers while encouraging turnover.
Single-Space Meter Parking
Definition: Freestanding hardware associated with a single parking space, used in on-street and surface operations to manage payment for the parking space.
Smartcard Parking
Definition: A chip card, integrated circuit card (ICC), or any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits with specialized memory. Versions include both read-only and read-write.
Software-as-a-service SaaS
Definition: Software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted. It is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software".
Ticket Validator Parking
Definition: Electronically encodes validations either onto the original transient ticket or onto a separate magnetic stripe validation ticket. Encoding stations are a basic offering in PARCS.
Time-Variable Pricing Parking
Definition: Any user charge that varies by time period; this helps manage demand and turnover.
Transient Parking
Definition: A parker who pays for parking on a short-term basis, typically daily or less. Transient customers typically pay for the amount of time used versus buying a set period of time to park (i.e. ,a month, a semester, etc.)
Validation Parking
Definition: A discount provided to parking customers. The discount amount is usually charged to the department or business that gave the parker the validation. Validation also refers to the process of inserting a ticket into a ticket validator and recording payment on it. May also be called vouchers or coupons.
Vending machine
Definition: A machine that dispenses items such as snacks, beverages, alcohol, cigarettes, lottery tickets to customers automatically, after the customer inserts currency or credit into the machine.
Video Detection or Video Analytics Parking
Definition: A system in which a closed-caption television (CCTV) camera captures an image that can be read and recognized via specialized software. In the case of vehicle detection, the image is read and the software determines within a degree of certainty that what is on the screen is a car. This system is a very effective method of covering large areas such as intersections or entire streets.
Waiting List Parking
Definition: A list of customers waiting for space to open up in a given facility or for a specific kind of permit.